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observing hickson groups

 

                                            Adam Block and Vic Eden/Mount Lemmon SkyCenter/University of Arizona

 

Introduction Observer's Guide Highlights Observing Reports

 

Observing Reports of all 100 Hickson Groups

All observations were done with my 22" f/4 Dobson under 6.0 to 6.5 mag skies.

The coordinates are for member a of each group, mag_b and mag_r are the blue and red magnitudes, respectively, of the galaxies according to Paul Hickson's published data, and v_r is the relative velocity of the galaxies calculated from their redshift, allowing to distinguish discordant members (galaxies with velocities substantially different from those of the other members are not physical members of the group, but chance background or foreground objects).

All images are at the same scale, measure 20'x20', and are from the blue DSS II.

Hickson 1 in Cepheus

00 26 07.1 +25 43 30

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
01a 15.02 13.33 10237
01b 15.68 13.85 10266
01c 16.21 14.15 10056
01d 17.40 15.77 10120

 

Difficult group

a + b appear as a very weak elongated glow with indirect vision, sometimes seen as separated objects, c is smaller and easier, d not seen (7mm)

 

Hickson 2  in Pisces

00 31 23.9 +08 28 01

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
02a 14.02 13.10 4326
02b 14.62 13.40 4366
02c 15.14 13.97 4235
02d 16.74 15.12 21340

 

b is the most prominent with averted vision

a and c somewhat weaker

d was not seen, should be tried under better conditions

 

Hickson 3 in Cetus

00 34 13.2 -07 33 54

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
03a 15.60 14.11 7302
03b 15.76 14.00 7860
03c 16.75 15.27 11545
03d 15.98 14.15 7804

 

7mm, loose group

a and b can be easily held directly

d is more difficult and c is the most difficult member, can be seen intermittently with averted vision

 

Hickson 4 in Cetus

00 34 13.7 -21 26 20

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
04a 13.80 12.71 8097
04b 15.70 14.62 7065
04c 16.11 14.45 8863
04d 16.12 14.86 8215
04e 16.61 15.26 18480

 

With 7mm, a and b are can be held steadily, c only intermittently visible, splitting b and d is difficult, from time to time, two members were suspected, but not with certainty

 

Hickson 5 in Pisces

00 38 54.7 +07 03 46

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
05a 15.08 13.39 12147
05b 15.99 13.70 12221
05c 16.72 13.77 12489
05d 17.30 15.49 8215

 

Very difficult group

group was spotted and at some times separate components were resolved, probably a and b

 

Hickson 6 in Cetus

00 39 13.8 -08 23 39

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
06a 15.87 13.94 11669
06b 16.16 14.18 11377
06c 15.97 14.09 10967
06d 17.89 16.45 11434

 

With 5mm

a is easy, can be held permanently

b and c can be split steadily with averted vision

d was not seen (2 mag weaker)

 

Hickson 7 in Cetus

00 39 13.4 +00 51 49

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
07a 13.50 11.97 4210
07b 13.94 12.40 4238
07c 13.65 12.41 4366
07d 14.85 13.39 4116

 

All four galaxies were observed

c appears large and diffuse, d is the weakest.

 

Hickson 8 in Andromeda

 00 49 34.1 +23 34 42

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
08a 15.50 13.23 16014
08b 16.41 14.44 15966
08c 16.31 14.28 17087
08d 16.41 14.27 16341

 

Difficult group, several galaxies visible with averted vision, but very difficult to hold steadily, requires more time to pin down the individual members (7mm)

 

Hickson 9 in Cetus

00 54 20.5 -23 33 09

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
09a 15.59 13.55 20155
09b 15.95 15.17 9406
09c 16.96 15.32 10300
09d 16.69 15.38 17726

 

5mm

suboptimal conditions as group is already low in the haze, therefore difficult observation

a can be seen with difficulty

 

Hickson 10 in Andromeda

01 26 21.6 +34 42 14

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
10a 13.49 11.81 5148
10b 13.35 11.68 4862
10c 14.98 13.23 4660
10d 15.82 14.23 4620

 

Easy group of four galaxies that can already be identified with lower power, d elongated (13 mm)

 

Hickson 11 in Cetus

 01 26 33.3 -23 13 33
HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
11a 13.65 12.37 5504
11b 15.93 14.75 13295
11c 17.26 15.99 12904
11d 16.86 15.37 9686

 

5mm

suboptimal conditions as group is already low in the haze

a is not difficult and pretty large

b can be seen as well without much difficulty

 

Hickson 12 in Cetus

01 27 33.4 -04 40 58

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
12a 15.25 13.37 14407
12b 16.82 14.96 14956
12c 17.82 16.01 14569
12d 18.16 16.14 14241
12e 18.25 16.51 14469

 

With 7mm, a is quite easy

b can be held steadily after a while c, d, and e were not observed

 

Hickson 13 in Cetus

01 32 20.5 -07 51 34

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
13a 15.69 13.72 12469
13b 15.97 13.86 12100
13c 16.96 15.00 12240
13d 17.69 15.99 12209
13e 17.82 15.76 12593

 

With 5mm, a and b can be held steadily with indirect vision,

c is difficult, can be seen only intermittently

 

 

Hickson 14 in Cetus

01 59 49.9 -07 03 34

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
14a 15.67 13.67 5929
14b 15.18 13.51 5365
14c 17.68 15.58 5145
14d 16.98 15.73 8416

With 5mm, a and b are relatively easy to see steadily,

c is somewhat more difficult

d was suspected every once in a a while, uncertain

 

Hickson 15 in Cetus

02 07 53.1 +02 10 03

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
15a 14.87 13.08 6967
15b 15.31 13.41 7117
15c 14.91 13.34 7222
15d 15.60 13.69 6244
15e 15.94 13.96 7197
15f 16.73 15.35 6242

 

Four out of five were observed (except f), all requiring indirect vision, e and d being the weakest. Small star interferes with observation of e.

 

Hickson 16 in Cetus

02 09 24.9 -10 08 09

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
16a 13.05 12.24 4152
16b 13.83 12.75 3977
16c 13.72 12.65 3851
16d 13.98 12.70 3847

 

 Very nice group of four bright galaxies. Easy already in smaller telescopes.

 

Hickson 17 in Aries

02 14 05.0 +13 04 41

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
17a 17.15 14.70 18228
17b 17.28 14.70 17904
17c 17.76 15.32 18224
17d 18.88 16.80 18124
17e 19.55 17.40 17976

5mm, very difficult group

Star ~1.5' SE of group can be held steadily, the same for the star directly SSE of group after a while

The group itself proofed very difficult and could be picked up only a few times as a feeble "something", no individual group members were discerned.

 

Hickson 18 in Aries

02 39 09.4 +18 22 03

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
18a 15.62 14.11 10019
18b 15.57 14.34 0
18c 16.24 15.25 4143
18d 15.73 15.03 4067

7mm, partially unresolved group

a is relatively easy, elongated

rest of the group appears as a difficult elongated patch, individual members not being resolved

 

Hickson 19 in Cetus

02 42 38.3 -12 25 19

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
19a 14.51 12.85 4279
19b 15.79 14.44 4210
19c 15.58 14.25 na
19d 17.71 15.87 na

With 7mm a is relatively easy to hold steadily

b can also be held with indirect vision

c is more difficult (probably due to its low sb), can be seen only intermittently

d was not observed

 

Hickson 20 in Aries

02 44 12.0 +26 05 57

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
20a 17.43 15.26 14477
20b 17.46 15.21 14424
20c 17.36 15.18 15032
20d 17.88 16.01 10561
20e 18.53 16.60 14312
20f 19.54 17.36 14280

This is an extremely difficult group with very dim members

with 5mm after extended observing, something was seen at the position of b/c , but only intermittently, cannot be held steadily

 

Hickson 21 in Eridanus

02 45 17.7 -17 42 30

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
21a 15.29 13.14 7614
21b 14.69 12.64 7568
21c 14.88 12.66 7356
21d 15.96 14.17 8835
21e 16.34 14.58 8843

All five members are already distinct with 13 mm, easy group.

 

Hickson 22 in Eridanus

03 03 38.5 -15 36 50

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
22a 12.78 10.95 2705
22b 15.32 13.64 2625
22c 14.55 13.19 2728
22d 15.60 13.70 9342
22e 15.68 13.84 9506

7mm, a is superbright

b, d, and e can be observed steadily without problem

c is more difficult and could be seen only intermittently

 

Hickson 23 in Eridanus

03 06 56.0 -09 32 37

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
23a 15.13 13.45 4798
23b 15.14 13.41 4921
23c 16.00 13.67 5016
23d 16.66 15.19 4562
23e 17.77 16.09 10150

Four out of five galaxies were observed (except e). c appears as a very thin streak.

 

Hickson 24 in Eridanus

03 20 15.4 -10 51 48

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
24a 15.89 13.81 9248
24b 15.60 13.94 9137
24c 17.26 15.35 9283
24d 17.95 16.25 8779
24e 18.30 16.45 9323

Difficult group

b is the easiest member, can be held permanently with averted vision and 5 mm

a/c were not resolved as individual members, cannot be held steadily

 

Hickson 25 in Cetus

03 20 42.9 -01 06 29

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
25a 14.70 13.63 6285
25b 15.15 12.33 6408
25c 16.10 14.60 10864
25d 16.36 14.58 6401
25e 16.67 15.38 10965
25f 16.66 14.96 6279
25g 17.38 15.60 12179

a with very low surface brightness and triangle of galaxies b, c, and d

b and f could be split

 

Hickson 26 in Eridanus

03 21 55.4 -13 39 03

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
26a 17.34 15.93 9678
26b 16.74 15.46 9332
26c 17.61 16.46 9618
26d 16.94 16.77 9133
26e 18.34 17.57 9623
26f 18.93 18.57 9626
26g 18.48 17.61 9293

Tight group close to star, no definite splitting into individual members

 

Hickson 27 in Eridanus

04 19 26.9 -11 44 01

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
27a 17.01 15.23 18340
27b 16.58 15.28 18530
27c 17.50 15.47 26352
27d 18.02 16.14 26256
27e 19.22 17.18 26044
27f 19.46 17.10 26100

Extremely difficult group

a and b were suspected at times, uncertain observation

 

Hickson 28 in Eridanus

04 27 18.6 -10 18 22

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
28a 16.31 14.91 11441
28b 16.24 15.10 11489
28c 16.67 15.35 11290
28d 18.42 16.76 30205

Extremely difficult group

some brightening was suspected at the position of b/d at times, uncertain observation

 

Hickson 29 in Eridanus

04 34 43.3 -30 32 39

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
29a 15.24 15.16 13328
29b 18.66 16.77 30824
29c 18.25 16.67 31669
29d 18.90 17.36 31714

Very low altitude with still good transparency, but mediocre seeing.

With 7mm, all stars are bloated, a/b appears indirectly as a diffuse object next to star. No further details.

 

Hickson 30 in Cepheus

04 36 18.6 -02 49 53

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
30a 13.79 11.29 4697
30b 14.33 12.59 4625
30c 15.87 14.70 4508
30d 16.76 15.05 4666

a and b are very obvious and elongated

c only indirectly, but steadily

d is more difficult, only fleetingly

to the south of the group is a group of 3 edge on galaxies (even better than HCG30 ☺)

 

Hickson 31 in Eridanus

05 01 38.4 -04 15 25

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
31a 15.62 14.43 4042
31b 15.35 14.73 4171
31c 13.44 12.76 4068
31d 18.53 17.06 26900

Distinct group

with 7 mm a/c appears directly as a structured object, though not resolved

b is weaker, elongated with indirect vision

there is an additional small galaxy equidistal on the other side of the nearby star

 

Hickson 32 in Lepus

05 01 45.2 -15 26 56

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
32a 14.72 13.23 12547
32b 16.07 14.56 12125
32c 17.12 15.23 11984
32d 17.59 15.76 12313

Difficult group

a and b can be held steadily with indirect vision

c is more difficult, observation of d is uncertain

 

Hickson 33 in Taurus

05 10 47.7 +18 01 11

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
33a 16.89 13.69 7570
33b 16.94 13.69 8006
33c 18.06 14.85 7823
33d 18.42 15.37 7767

With 7 mm, a and b can be held steadily with averted vision

d was seen only intermittently, c was not observed (I did not spend much time on trying)

 

Hickson 34 in Orion

05 21 46.0 +06 41 20

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
34a 14.89 12.23 8997
34b 17.41 14.77 9620
34c 17.10 15.15 9392
34d 18.29 15.64 8817

With 7 mm, a is not difficult with averted vision, though the rest of the group could not be observed. Seeing was only modest, needs to be re-observed under better conditions.

 

Hickson 35 in Lynx

08 45 21.3 +44 31 14

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
35a 16.24 14.46 15919
35b 15.80 14.45 16338
35c 16.36 14.05 16357
35d 17.13 16.18 15798
35e 17.72 16.04 16773
35f 18.71 16.42 16330

This is a difficult group. The core of the group can be discerned and is split every now and then into a triangle of three members (a, b, and c)

 

Hickson 36 in Cancer

09 09 22.6 +15 47 46

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
36a 15.14 13.53 3808
36b 16.86 15.61 6333
36c 17.61 16.37 8635
36d 17.85 16.23 15668

a: easily seen with averted vision, b: more difficult, but definitely seen, neighboring star interferes, c/d: not seriously tried

 

Hickson 37 in Cancer

09 13 39.5 +29 59 34

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
37a 13.92 12.05 6745
37b 15.51 13.33 6741
37c 16.51 14.44 7357
37d 16.41 15.87 6207
37e 17.01 15.97 6363

Very obvious group, a: very prominent, b: indirectly, very elongated, c: more difficult, definitely separated from a, d/e: tried, but not seen

 

Hickson 38 in Leo

09 27 34.7 +12 16 10

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
38a 16.13 14.53 8760
38b 15.43 13.87 8739
38c 16.09 14.62 8770
38d 17.30 15.53 24282

a prominent, b/c appears elongated, not definitely separated, d not seen

 

Hickson 39 in Hydra

09 29 27.7 -01 20 44

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
39a 17.42 15.74 21119
39b 17.63 15.95 21176
39c 17.57 16.18 20667
39d 17.87 16.17 21048

Moderate seeing: extremely difficult group, star field allows to precisely pinpoint the location, nothing to see at first sight

after some time some a fleeting object was suspected with 7mm with averted vision and only intermittently, but could not be held. Could be the b/c or a/b/c, as judged from its location.

Uncertain observation.

Same impression was confirmed the next day.

 

Hickson 40 in Hydra

09 38 53.4 -04 50 56

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
40a 14.09 12.18 6628
40b 15.19 13.24 6842
40c 15.82 13.66 6890
40d 15.20 13.54 6492
40e 17.36 15.41 6625

 

a, b, and d could be splitted, e not definitely seen, c could be splitted from b intermittently indirectly

 

Hickson 41 in Ursa Major

09 57 35.6 +45 13 48

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
41a 14.70 13.16 3751
41b 15.44 13.91 7241
41c 16.63 15.31 9717
41d 18.21 16.41 4431

 

a: prominent with direct v., nice edge on galaxy,

b: somewhat weaker, also very elongated,

c: only indirect, less elongated than b,

d: sometimes suspected, not definitely seen, two neighboring stars could be seen steadily

 

Hickson 42 in Hydra

10 00 13.9 -19 38 14

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
42a 12.34 10.31 3625
42b 14.52 13.03 4198
42c 14.56 12.86 4005
42d 16.54 14.73 4076

 

a: very obvious,

b: with direct vision, slightly elongated,

c/d: with direct v.

 

Hickson 43 in Sextans

10 11 19.9 -00 01 23

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
43a 15.94 14.40 10163
43b 16.25 14.76 10087
43c 16.27 14.51 9916
43d 17.35 15.98 9630
43e 17.80 15.79 9636
43f 18.63 17.16 19505

 

Very difficult group, at first sight no definitive galaxy, only after extended observation, four of the six galaxies could be definitely discerned,

a and b: elongated,

c and d: definitely seen,

e: sometimes suspected, could not be held

 

Hickson 44 in Leo

10 18 05.7 +21 49 57

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
44a 12.43 11.14 1293
44b 14.21 12.19 1378
44c 13.35 12.37 1218
44d 14.28 14.06 1579

 

One of the Hickson showpieces also for smaller apertures, very nice group

a: dust lane seen as a sharp edge,

b: featureless elliptical,

c: with wide halo,

d: by far the weakest, very elongated

 

Hickson 45 in Ursa Major

10 19 13.8 +59 07 51

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
45a 15.87 14.14 21811
45b 16.95 15.33 22195
45c 18.34 16.78 21799
45d 17.81 16.07 20735

This is a very difficult group

According to the catalog, a should be quite bright, yet spread over an extended area. Even with indirect vision, it is a threshold object during this night. B could not be seen, the star next to it was already at the limit.

 

Hickson 46 in Leo

10 22 07.3 +17 50 17

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
46a 16.83 15.08 8201
46b 16.95 15.29 8571
46c 16.81 15.17 7906
46d 16.81 15.02 7703

 

Four galaxies grouped between two stars, all of them appear distinct with averted vision, b and c form close pair that could be separated with 6 mm (360x)

 

Hickson 47 in Leo

10 25 46.3 +13 43 00

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
47a 15.29 13.56 9581
47b 16.28 14.26 9487
47c 17.58 16.33 9529
47d 17.16 15.99 9471

 

Obvious group close to a moderatly bright star

a and b: very obvious already with direct vision

c/d: seen with difficulty indirectly, not separated

 

Hickson 48 in Hydra

10 37 47.7 -27 04 55

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
48a 14.02 12.39 3014
48b 15.11 14.26 2385
48c 16.52 14.75 4203
48d 17.48 15.62 3045

 

Very low object, both seeing and transparency are poor at this elevation.

Still, a and b are easily spotted.

Interesting field of galaxies also beyond this group (Hydra I cluster)

 

Hickson 49 in Ursa Major

10 56 41.6 +67 11 07

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
49a 16.32 14.92 9939
49b 16.76 15.47 9930
49c 17.67 16.24 9926
49d 17.33 16.00 10010

 

With 5mm, the entire group is not that difficult and appears as an unresolved clump of galaxies that can be seen steadily with averted vision. Resolution into single galaxies, however, is very difficult. The star to the south west is fairly bright, the star directly south of the group can be seen most of the time.

 

Hickson 50 in Ursa Major

11 17 06.4 +54 55 00

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
50a 19.08 16.20 41870
50b 19.15 16.46 41170
50c 19.92 17.19 41398
50d 19.83 17.02 42546
50e 20.32 17.64 41650

 

This is by far the most difficult group in the Hickson Catalog! There are positive observations with 30" and up. Here are my own (negative) notes:

(2008) Star at the southwest border seen intermittently with indirect vision, no galaxies seen, did not try to push it excessively

(03/2009) upon re-observation with 500x (f/4.5, 5mm) with both good seeing and good transparency, the star pattern leading to HCG50 could be held steadily and also the star immediately SW of the group could be held about 50% of the time with indirect vision. I spent about 20minutes with this object to see how far I could get. Twice, a stellar object "twinkled" at the position of b (which is *not* the brightest member) over time. Well, this happens every once in a while if you stare extendedly into apparently empty dark space and belongs to the category "averted imagination" :-)

(04/2015) re-observed again at 500x with good (but not excellent) seeing and transparency. Again, the star could be held about 50% of the time with AV, which is not sufficient for a clean observation of the group.

 

Hickson 51 in Leo

11 22 26.5 +24 17 56

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
51a 14.49 12.68 7696
51b 15.69 13.78 8183
51c 14.76 12.30 8902
51d 15.81 12.97 7529
51e 15.41 13.87 7700
51f 15.40 13.67 7532
51g 16.34 15.03 na

 

a,c,d trio is easily seen, a appears as an elongated blob (merged with f)

 b and e: with indirect v., easy to separate,

g: not seen

Easier than I had it in mind from earlier observations with my 14".

 

Hickson 52 in Leo

11 26 19.1 +21 05 46

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
52a 15.54 13.88 12979
52b 16.83 15.24 13040
52c 16.68 15.41 12630
52d 17.70 16.68 6293

a and c are relatively easy and can be seen steadily with indirect vision. b was only suspected.

 

Hickson 53 in Leo

11 28 50.4 +20 47 43

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
53a 13.87 12.52 6261
53b 15.11 13.44 6166
53c 15.26 14.22 6060
53d 16.78 15.44 9070

a: elongated, large, and bright galaxy, b and c: small blobs, with direct v. with 7 mm, d: very difficult, seen intermittently with indirect v., nearby star is distracting

HCG 54 is nearby

 

Hickson 54 in Leo

11 29 15.3 +20 35 00

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
54a 14.16 13.94 1397
54b 16.38 15.55 1412
54c 17.05 16.24 1420
54d 18.26 17.85 1670

Very compact and fascinating group near HCG 53, forms a small arc that is obvious with indirect vision already with 24 mm. With 7 mm, small knots are seen intermittently that could not be held steadily. These knots are probably the single galaxies a and b, more difficult than HCG 55

 

Hickson 55 in Draco

11 32 07.0 +70 48 56

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
55a 16.25 14.36 15820
55b 16.88 15.00 15690
55c 17.43 15.31 15480
55d 17.63 15.62 16070
55e 18.03 16.52 36880

 

One of the highlights of the Hickson catalog, though not easy. Starting from NGC 3735, the chain is quite obvious with indirect vision, though difficult to split into single galaxies. After extended observation three, sometimes four knots could be separated with averted vision, but could not be held steadily. Very difficult group that is nevertheless worth the effort of trying to get to your limits

 

Hickson 56 in Ursa Major

11 32 46.7 +52 56 27

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
56a 16.36 14.81 8245
56b 15.00 13.52 7919
56c 15.87 14.27 8110
56d 17.01 15.32 8346
56e 16.54 15.19 7924

This is one of the prototypical Hickson groups. Easy to find near NGC 3718, appears as weak string already with smaller telescopes. The string can be separated into three knots, b, c/d, and e (somewhat offset), sometimes (good conditions) c and d appear separate as well. a is the most difficult, appears as an elongated glow with indirect vision, no distinct bright nucleus and thus much weaker than expected from the POSS plate.

Earlier observations with my 14" revealed no complete resolution of the chain, though knots were sometimes visible. a was not seen with 14".

 

Hickson 57 in Leo

11 37 53.8 +21 58 53

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
57a 14.66 12.74 8727
57b 15.15 13.45 9022
57c 15.23 13.52 9081
57d 15.20 14.06 8977
57e 15.91 14.10 8992
57f 15.23 14.07 9594
57g 16.35 14.56 9416
57h 17.38 15.75 na

Copeland's septett is one of the showpieces of the Hickson catalog, less difficult than Seyfert's sextett. All eight galaxies were observed, as well as a 9th galaxy N of the group. The galaxies form two distinct groups with f standing apart. The individual galaxies could be easily split with 6 mm and could be held steadily with indirect vision. This is certainly one of the most fascinating Hickson groups.

 

Hickson 58 in Leo

11 42 11.3 +10 16 40

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
58a 14.28 12.97 6138
58b 14.10 12.52 6503
58c 14.51 13.24 6103
58d 15.14 13.62 6270
58e 15.59 14.33 6052

 

All five galaxies could be observed.

 

Hickson 59 in Leo

11 48 27.5 +12 43 39

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
59a 14.96 13.48 4109
59b 15.92 14.22 3908
59c 16.04 15.05 4347
59d 16.29 15.21 3866
59e 17.76 16.06 23700

 

With 7mm, a and b are relatively easy and can be held steadily. c is more difficult and can be held about 50% of the time after having some time spent with it. d is very difficult, sometimes small condensations were suspected at the correct location, uncertain.

 

Hickson 60 in Ursa Major

12 03 07.3 +51 40 31

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
60a 16.08 14.14 19007
60b 17.24 15.37 18318
60c 17.39 15.63 19277
60d 17.20 15.41 18300

With 7mm, difficult group , a/c/d as unresolved cluster that can be held quite steadily with averted vision, b is somewhat more difficult

 

Hickson 61 in Coma Berenices

12 12 19.0 +29 10 49

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
61a 13.20 11.67 3784
61b 13.73 12.81 1127
61c 14.31 12.71 3956
61d 14.48 13.05 3980

The Box, one of the few named Hickson groups. Not as bright as one would expect from the POSS plates, but still a showpiece. Easily seen also with my 14". b, a nearer discordant member, is the faintest of the four and extends well beyond the rectangle.

 

Hickson 62 in Virgo

12 53 05.8 -09 12 15

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
62a 13.79 11.25 4355
62b 14.21 12.04 3651
62c 15.00 13.59 4359
62d 16.30 14.11 4123

a and b form a bright couple that is easy to split with 9 mm. c is separate from this couple, elongated, d: the weakest member of the group, though not particularly difficult

 

Hickson 63 in Centaurus

13 02 17.0 -32 45 37

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
63a 15.03 13.49 5228
63b 14.47 14.07 9346
63c 15.66 14.54 9460
63d 17.51 16.44 9141

7mm. This is the first time that I observe a deep sky object in Centaurus (from 48° northern latitude)!

Transparency is really poor close to the horizon. In a first attempt the field stars could be made out, but not the galaxies. At a later time with somewhat better conditions, a and c could be seen after some effort as separate objects, with a being elongated. At a 10° higher elevation, this would probably be a fairly easy group.

 

Hickson 64 in Virgo

13 25 45.3 -03 51 50

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
64a 15.58 13.89 10596
64b 16.74 15.06 10723
64c 15.60 15.10 6147
64d 17.98 16.36 11100

Loose group with c and b as most distinct members, a is very weak, d was not seen

 

Hickson 65 in Hydra

13 29 51.0 -29 30 53

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
65a 14.67 12.88 14105
65b 15.49 14.16 14700
65c 15.79 13.70 14243
65d 15.94 13.93 13733
65e 17.01 15.66 14405

7mm. This is actually a really "fat" group, which becomes, however, very, very difficult due to its low elevation. At -30°dec, this is only about 10° above the horizon and the transparency gets really poor down there. Only the two major condensations could be made out (a/d and b/c/e) and could be split from each other without any further separation.

 

Hickson 66 in Ursa Major

13 38 38.9 +57 18 44

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
66a 16.15 14.15 20688
66b 17.27 15.39 21472
66c 17.16 15.32 20801
66d 18.22 16.26 20850

Difficult, tight group

a/b form brightest part, a and be can be split with effort

c/d appear as a fainter extension that cannot be split into single components

 

Hickson 67 in Virgo

13 49 11.3 -07 13 28

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
67a 13.43 11.73 7262
67b 15.26 14.64 7644
67c 15.83 14.21 7430
67d 15.94 13.28 7071

a is easily seen with direct vision, b is more difficult, elongated, d and c are very difficult (the thin crescent of the 3 days old moon might be disturbing), d could be seen intermittently, c was only suspected a few times, c appears to be more difficult than d

 

Hickson 68 in Canes Venatici

13 53 26.7 +40 16 59

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
68a 12.04 10.19 2162
68b 12.52 10.56 2635
68c 12.11 10.90 2313
68d 14.27 12.97 2408
68e 14.74 13.27 2401

Together with HCG 44 the brightest Hickson group. Beautiful group of 5 galaxies that are all prominent with e being the weakest. c has a wide halo that appears sometimes mottled. Don't miss NGC 5371, a nice spiral 30' ENE.

 

Hickson 69 in Bootes

13 55 29.9 +25 04 26

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
69a 15.93 14.19 8856
69b 16.09 14.52 8707
69c 15.93 14.36 8546
69d 17.04 15.40 9149

A nice field of galaxies surrounds this group, which is therefore not a very distinct target

a, c, and neighboring star could be split, d was not resolved

b is comparatively easy with averted visions

nearby IC galaxies are a nice, brighter pair

click for larger image

 

Hickson 70 in Canes Venatici

14 04 10.4 +33 20 14

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
70a 15.30 13.66 8238
70b 15.26 13.71 8198
70c 16.17 14.85 8079
70d 16.24 14.81 18846
70e 16.32 15.06 19117
70f 17.25 16.36 19243
70g 16.43 14.93 19010

a and b appear as the most prominent members. d could be separated from a with averted vision. c and g seen intermittently with averted vision and 6 mm. e only suspected, f not seen.

 

Hickson 71 in Bootes

14 10 57.1 +25 29 48

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
71a 14.57 13.28 9320
71b 15.56 14.21 9335
71c 16.43 15.44 8450
71d 17.18 15.41 20590

a and b can be steadily seen, a appears more extended, b elongated

c is seen intermittently with averted vision, d is even more difficult, but could be discerned at a few moments

 

Hickson 72 in Bootes

14 47 53.6 +19 04 36

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
72a 16.28 14.56 12506
72b 16.14 14.43 12356
72c 16.12 14.44 13062
72d 16.30 14.32 12558
72e 18.56 17.20 24050
72f 18.59 17.03 13950

Very compact group. a, b, c, and d could be split, b and d being the closest. e and f were not seen (mag 17+ objects).

 

Hickson 73 in Bootes

15 02 42.3 +23 19 56

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
73a 14.14 12.93 5728
73b 17.02 14.59 13600
73c 17.00 15.10 13300
73d 18.66 16.13 13480
73e 17.92 16.65 28500

a is an extended low surface brightness object and more difficult than b, which is smaller and more distinct

c is more difficult, but could be seen with certainty, while d and e were not seen

 

Hickson 74 in Serpens

15 19 24.8 +20 53 47

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
74a 14.96 12.75 12255
74b 15.97 13.79 12110
74c 17.00 14.89 12266
74d 17.06 15.02 11681
74e 18.60 16.54 11489

a and b form a close pair that can be split, c is not resolved

d could be seen intermittently, but could not be held steadily

 

Hickson 75 in Serpens

15 21 30.4 +21 11 27

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
75a 15.32 13.49 12538
75b 17.93 15.36 12228
75c 16.67 15.10 12292
75d 16.70 15.40 12334
75e 17.10 15.33 12300
75f 17.33 15.57 13080

HCG 75 is very difficult group

a/b/f complex appears to consist of two condensations, c/d could be seen intermittently, but could not be split, e was seen as well only intermittently

 

Hickson 76 in Serpens

15 31 47.7 +07 18 27

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
76a 16.01 14.14 10054
76b 15.23 13.54 10002
76c 15.63 13.48 10663
76d 16.15 14.08 10150
76e 17.35 15.71 10328
76f 17.27 15.71 10216
76g 17.65 16.06 9843

Faint group. b and c appear to be the easiest members. a and d were seen with averted vision.

All four form a rectangle and could be held steadily. e, f, and g were not seen/split. Don't miss the small spiral at the upper right corner

 

Hickson 77 in Serpens

15 49 16.9 +21 49 10

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
77a 16.38 14.53 10508
77b 16.62 14.64 10690
77c 16.03 15.02 2200
77d 17.42 16.58 2250

Difficult group, short chain of galaxies next to two stars

using averted vision, often two and sometimes three condensations glimpsed with 7 mm

 

Hickson 78 in Draco

15 48 17.3 +68 13 14

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
78a 15.01 12.49 8599
78b 15.12 13.66 9544
78c 18.25 15.73 18200
78d 17.23 16.13 10000

a and b are relatively easy targets and appear as extended glows, c and d were not seen

 

Hickson 79 in Serpens

15 59 11.5 +20 45 15

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
79a 15.12 13.46 4292
79b 14.55 13.07 4446
79c 15.48 14.21 4146
79d 16.89 16.74 4503
79e 16.61 15.31 19809

Famous Seyfert's sextet, being actually a quintet with the sixth member being probably a tidal plume of b. This is an extremely challenging group requiring aperture and high magnification. It is the prototype of the extremely tight members of Hickson's catalog.

HCG 79 appears as a horseshoe-shaped glow of about 2' diameter. The group can be separated intermittently into three individual knots (a, c, and b) using 360x, still it is difficult to pin down their precise location permanently.

 

Hickson 80 in Draco

15 59 19.1 +65 13 58

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
80a 15.66 14.25 8963
80b 16.52 14.97 9584
80c 16.23 15.24 9550
80d 17.01 16.19 9108

a appears very elongated with averted vision, b and c can be seen, but very weak, d was not seen

 

Hickson 81 in Hercules

16 18 14.3 +12 47 43

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
81a 17.11 15.59 14676
81b 17.11 15.59 15150
81c 17.78 15.63 15050
81d 17.74 15.61 14954

This is a very difficult group, sometimes detected with averted vision as a non-uniform, structured condensation

 

Hickson 82 in Hercules

16 28 22.6 +32 50 57

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
82a 14.94 12.83 11177
82b 15.41 13.66 10447
82c 15.74 14.53 10095
82d 16.72 15.15 11685

All four members were observed. a, b, and c have about same brightness. d is weaker, almost stellar, only with averted vision.

 

Hickson 83 in Hercules

16 35 36.4 +06 15 55

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
83a 16.83 14.90 15560
83b 17.04 15.07 16442
83c 17.52 16.29 16520
83d 19.09 18.05 15500
83e 19.44 17.51 15560

This is a quite difficult group

a can be held steadily with averted vision, b is very faint and is seen only intermittently

Other members could not be observed

 

Hickson 84 in Ursa Minor

16 44 23.0 +77 50 19

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
84a 15.77 13.99 16654
84b 16.86 14.97 16554
84c 16.82 15.09 16353
84d 17.54 15.89 16800
84e 18.00 16.28 16950
84f 18.42 16.23 32500

With 5 mm, c is observed next to a star, a and b are difficult, but could be seen with certainty

 

Hickson 85 in Draco

18 50 18.5 +73 21 05

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
85a 15.77 13.73 11155
85b 16.26 14.24 12122
85c 17.65 15.69 11912
85d 18.12 16.08 11900

a and b can be held steadily with averted vision, c and d were not observed

 

Hickson 86 in Sagittarius

19 52 08.7 -30 49 30

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
86a 14.63 12.23 6174
86b 15.13 13.00 6196
86c 16.08 13.64 5529
86d 15.85 14.19 5916

a and b are easy, c is very distinct as well, d is dimmer

 

Hickson 87 in Capricornus

20 48 14.9 -19 50 53

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
87a 15.41 13.29 8694
87b 15.60 13.80 8972
87c 16.23 14.88 8920
87d 17.83 16.34 10200

Very small and difficult group, with 5 mm; a is the brightest, a and b can be well seen as indivual condensations, c not definitely seen

 

Hickson 88 in Aquarius

20 52 35.4 -05 42 39

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
88a 14.22 12.57 6033
88b 14.28 12.69 6010
88c 14.95 13.96 6083
88d 15.96 14.60 6032

All four galaxies observed. a, b, and c form a nice linear chain. a and b can be seen directly as round glows, while c is much weaker, requiring indirect vision. d is located in a triangle of stars and is much more difficult to discern.

This is the first Hickson group observed with my 22" Dobson during First Light night (the very first object with the coated mirror was M16).

 

Hickson 89 in Aquarius

21 20 01.0 -03 55 20

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
89a 15.50 14.27 8850
89b 16.22 15.18 8985
89c 16.55 15.39 8872
89d 17.16 16.32 8857

Difficult group; with 7 mm, a and b very diffuse, seen only with indirect vision with effort, c/d sometimes suspected, not separated

 

Hickson 90 in Pisces Austrinus

22 02 01.9 -31 52 11

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
90a 13.13 11.48 2575
90b 12.66 10.89 2525
90c 14.03 11.25 2696
90d 14.37 12.13 2778

This group was observed only slightly above the horizon prior to setting. No detailed notes were taken.

08.09.2008: all four members could be observed, a has comparatively low surface brightness, b and c are more distinct, d and b could be split

 

Hickson 91 in Pisces Austrinus

22 09 07.6 -27 48 36

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
91a 13.57 12.43 6832
91b 15.80 14.34 7196
91c 15.39 14.24 7319
91d 15.48 13.91 7195

All four members were observed, a and d are easy to split, b appears as an elongated streak, c is the most difficult

 

Hickson 92 in Pegasus

22 36 04.2 +33 56 52

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
92a 13.47 12.38 786
92b 14.06 12.47 5774
92c 14.25 12.65 6764
92d 14.47 13.13 6630
92e 14.93 12.72 6599

Famous Stephan's Quintet in Pegasus, near NGC 7331. All 5 can be seen, with b/d being the closest pair (more difficult to split in smaller scopes). A star is next to the nucleus of a and may be misidentified as the nucleus. The sixth galaxy, NGC 7320c, is somewhat more difficult, but well visible under good conditions.

All five members were also identified with my 14". With 8" the group was detected as a fleeting glow only.

 

Hickson 93 in Pegasus

23 15 16.0 +18 57 41

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
93a 13.48 11.85 5140
93b 14.13 12.79 4672
93c 14.87 12.92 5132
93d 15.85 13.90 5173
93e 16.02 13.85 8881

 

Very nice group, all five galaxies observed; a, b, and c with direct vision, d and e with averted vision, with e being the weakest.

 

Hickson 94 in Pegasus

23 17 13.6 +18 42 29

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
94a 14.66 12.93 12040
94b 15.28 13.54 11974
94c 16.38 14.43 12120
94d 16.52 14.80 13009
94e 18.15 16.37 12250
94f 18.16 16.22 12920
94g 18.57 16.64 13200

 

With 7 mm, a and b easy, but relatively close pair; d not seen, too close to star; c suspected, but not definitely seen

 

Hickson 95 in Pegasus

23 19 30.0 +09 30 31

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
95a 15.23 13.43 11888
95b 16.12 14.63 11637
95c 16.38 14.66 11562
95d 17.23 15.37 12350

 

a/d as single knot, easy; b difficult, sometimes with indirect vision; c suspected, not definitely seen.

 

Hickson 96 in Pegasus

23 27 56.7 +08 46 43 
HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
96a 14.01 12.64 8698
96b 15.04 13.20 8616
96c 16.10 14.38 8753
96d 17.13 16.10 8975

With 7 mm, a and b easy, c attached to a; d not seen

 

Hickson 97 in Pisces

23 47 22.9 -02 18 03

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
97a 14.27 12.75 6910
97b 15.86 14.17 6940
97c 15.11 13.51 5995
97d 14.95 12.66 6239
97e 16.75 14.81 6579

 

a, c, and d are prominent and can be seen with direct vision. b is much more difficult and can only be glimpsed with indirect vision.

 

Hickson 98 in Pisces

23 54 10.2 +00 22 57

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
98a 14.14 12.43 7855
98b 15.16 13.41 7959
98c 16.59 14.85 8145
98d 16.94 15.93 14950

a and b bright, symmetrically arranged around star, c relatively easy with indirect vision, d not seen

 

Hickson 99 in Pegasus

00 00 37.9 +28 23 04

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
99a 14.98 13.25 8705
99b 15.00 13.05 8846
99c 15.85 13.90 8216
99d 17.44 15.65 8643
99e 17.84 16.07 9007

 

a, b, and c are small but prominent and easy to observe. d and e were not seen.

 

Hickson 100 in Pegasus

00 01 20.0 +13 06 41

HCG # mag_b mag_r v_r
100a 14.20 12.62 5300
100b 15.40 14.28 5253
100c 16.01 15.46 5461
100d 16.97 14.67 na

 

a distinct blob with indirect vision b relatively large, but very diffuse, indirect c small, d not seen with certainty, two stars are disturbing

 

Introduction Observer's Guide Highlights Observing Reports

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